Effective communication between clinician and patient is an essential part of delivering oral health care. The communication process is often complicated by the effects of age. For this reason, the AAFP has reviewed the literature to produce the following 12 recommendations for improving communication with older patients:
 Beisecker AE. Aging and the desire for information and input in medical decisions: patient consumerism in medical encounters. Gerontologist. 1988;28:330–335.
 Haug MR, Ory MG. Issues in elderly patient-provider interactions. Res Aging. 1987;9:3–44.
 Baker SK. Thirty ways to make your practice more patient-friendly. In: Woods D, ed. Communication for Doctors: How to Improve Patient Care and Minimize Legal Risk. Oxford: Radcliffe; 2004.
 Dreher BB. Communication Skills for Working With Elders. New York: Springer; 1987.
 Osborne H. Communicating with clients in person and over the phone. Issue Brief Cent Medicare Educ. 2003;4(8):1–8.
 Breisch SL. Elderly patients need special connection. Am Acad Orthop Surg Bull. February 2001;49(1).
 Nussbaum JF, Pecchioni LL, Robinson JD, Thompson T. Communication and Aging. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc; 2000.
 Meryn S. Improving doctor-patient communication: not an option but a necessity. BMJ. 1998;316(7149):1922.
 Schopick JE. Hippocrates was right: treat people, not their disease. In: Woods D, ed. Communication for Doctors: How to Improve Patient Care and Minimize Legal Risk. Oxford: Radcliffe; 2004:12–13.
 Ley P. Towards better doctor-patient communications. In: Bennett AE, ed. Communication Between Doctors and Patients. London: Oxford University Press. 1976:77–98.